Terms of Reference - Evaluation of the SNV Niger pastoralism programme with a focus on impact on food
|Location||West and Central Africa, Mali|
|Date Posted||June 27, 2012|
|Category||Advocacy & Partnership|
|Job Type||Full Time|
|Closing date for applications||July 2, 2012|
With more than 35 million animals and an estimated value of more than 2.000 billion FCFA, Niger’s livestock sector accounts for 11% of GDP and 40% of gross agricultural product (refer to note 1). Being the second source of export revenues after mining, it contributes strongly to food security and poverty alleviation.
The total economic value and the functioning of pastoral livestock value chains are often poorly understood and the relevance of pastoralism is often underestimated at the policy level. Pastoralist communities have limited voice in policy debates compared to more settled agricultural groups and urban populations. This inequity is also present within pastoralist societies, where certain groups have traditionally been excluded from decision making and growing socio-economic differentiation along wealth and gender lines.
Supporting pastoralists to improve their livelihoods is closely linked to addressing some of the development challenges dry land areas are typically confronted with, including (refer to note 2):
Climate change: this is evidenced by more extreme oscillations between dry and wet periods and the effects on the availability of natural resources (pastures, water) and animal-disease in different areas, leading to increased risks in livestock production.
Food insecurity: with recurring droughts, it is recognized that the response to cyclical droughts and famine needs to shift from a short-term focus on food aid to longer-term initiatives designed to enhance the resilience of pastoralist’s livelihoods. In a broader sense, pastoralism is challenged to meet the growing demand for animal products in the ECOWAS region due to an emerging middle class and urbanization. SNV mainly focuses on improving food production for food availability (refer to note 3) and on equal food access to food (refer to note 4).
Poverty: with economic growth in many African countries showing solid progress, there is growing concern that current poverty reduction efforts are not reaching the poorest and most marginalised groups, of which certain pastoralist categories form a large part. These marginalized groups are typically the people that SNV tries to impact on.
Peace and security: an important part of pastoralists lives in the most remote and inhospitable regions within countries, or in areas where the strategic pastoral resources are encroached by other land uses, such as mining, environmental protection or (commercial) agriculture. This gives rise to socio-political grievances that provide fertile ground for instability.
SNV Niger’s activities in pastoralism
In Niger, SNV interventions in pastoralism / livestock were focussed on:
Improving pastoralists’ access to pastoral resources through influencing livestock policies (in country and cross border), land use policies and legal frameworks at national and regional levels. SNV’s interventions in securing access to pastoral resources include supporting livestock control bodies, cross border mobility, facilitation of multi-stakeholder platforms to regulate access to pastoral resources, and management of water sources and use. SNV strengthens the capacity of various umbrella pastoralists’ organisations, such as CAPAN AREN and the RBM (Réseau Bilital Maroobe) network, to protect the interests of their members. SNV has been active in Tahoua, Niamey/Tillaberi, Maradi and Zinder.
Increasing income generation opportunities for pastoralists through appropriate cattle marketing mechanisms (market regulations, governance and transparency in cattle markets). By identifying obstacles and opportunities for good functioning of markets and by supporting local governments and pastoralist’s organisations, SNV promotes good governance of local cattle markets, the marketing of by-products (milk, cheese) and full market-participation by pastoralists.
Improving service delivery by pastoralists’ organisations to their members (including improvement of technical services, livestock production and financial services), especially those that focus on quality and quantity of production.
Till fairly recently, SNV focussed on rather specific and sometimes isolated but very important aspects of the pastoral livestock value chain (e.g. land tenure policy) and on specific clients / organisations. However, it has become apparent that in order to influence development of the pastoral livestock value chain, it is required that various issues (access to strategic natural resources, animal health, marketing, performance of producer’s organizations, equity and gender, etc.), are addressed simultaneously. Acknowledging the complexity of the matter, SNV recently adopted a systems approach towards the sector and has moved from a single client-based service to a multi-stakeholder approach that focusses on crucial players in the pastoral livestock value chain.
Purpose and scope of the evaluation
The evaluation aims to reveal (1) the extent to which capacities, services and legal frameworks of key organizations in the pastoral livestock value chain have improved (these are called outcomes in SNV), (2) SNV’s added value in this, and (3) to assess the impact of these outcomes on income improvement and food security in the affected areas and among pastoralists.
It is expected that the evaluation will assist in reconstructing the intervention logic(s) and use qualitative and, if necessary and feasible, quantitative methods for assessing outcomes and impacts. It should explain what has worked, what has not, and why.
The study will focus on those areas where SNV has been active and that are accessible for field visits and represent a substantial and important component of the intervention by SNV.
If, after studying the availability and quality of information on the pastoralist programme, the evaluators may want to collect additional primary, quantitative information, SNV may provide or arrange for additional support. This support (in the form of a survey by an African University) would be in addition to the proposed budget in response to this Request for Proposals and will be decided upon after further review of the need for and feasibility of collecting additional quantitative data.
The main evaluation questions are:
To what extent have organisations at the meso-level (refer to note 5) changed their capacities and performance and changed the policies affecting the members of the relevant organisations at the meso-level? What have been the most important changes and how did these came about?
What has SNV been able to trigger or change in the relevant organisations, the policy arena, and market dynamics affecting the pastoralist and their interest organisations? What strategies has it used? What other factors may explain the changes?
Against what costs have the changes come about?
To what extent has the situation of poor pastoralist changed in terms of income and other food security related factors? and
To what extent are these changes related to improvements of capacities and performance of organisations at the meso-level and the policies affecting the pastoral livestock value chain?
What result pathways were followed by development interventions in the programme?
What were the basic assumptions underpinning the intervention logic(s)? How have these been tested, challenged or changed in the process of implementation and what has been the learning from practice?
To what extent do the interventions address accountability and social inclusiveness (including gender)? And what factors have influenced this?
How did SNV collaborate with other development organizations, and promote alignment?
To what extent has the programme been scaled-up? What factors have influenced this up-scaling? What has SNV done to scale-up the developments and what have been the effects thereof?
How has SNV contributed to learning among stakeholders and what have been the effects thereof?
Are there patterns in success or failure factors, and what lessons can be drawn from this?
What lessons could be drawn to inform scaling-up the pastoralist programme with less core subsidy and in a changing funding environment; how to shape a programme to allow for flexibility and to respond quickly when a funding opportunity comes up?
Together with the evaluator(s) an evaluation matrix will be developed detailing the evaluation questions, indicators and method(s). This will be included in an inception report.
Phases and deliverables
The evaluation will be conducted in four phases:
1) Analysis of the SNV Niger pastoralist planning and progress reports, case studies and other documentation; and development of a generic logic model to be deducted from this.
è A report on the draft intervention logic underpinning the pastoralist programme in Niger (refer to note 6)
2) Together with SNV (Managing for Results unit in Head Office, Country Director and network/sector leader in Niger, and Regional Director/Regional Strategy Advisor West and Central Africa), the evaluators will make a plan for further in-country analysis related to development results.
è An inception report detailing the review of program documents and in-country analysis
3) In-country visit to conduct evaluation study, in collaboration with local stakeholders (SNV staff, LCBs, partners, clients, beneficiaries), refer to note 7
è An evaluation report of country findings and results
4) Participation in a discussion of findings and recommendations with SNV staff and a report on the discussion
è Final evaluation report based on feedback from SNV
Profile service provider
Evaluation expertise (both quantitative and qualitative research methods)
Expertise in the field of international development cooperation
Expertise in pastoralism / livestock value chain development
Expertise in food security
Expertise in capacity development and multi-stakeholder processes
Expertise in Niger and/or West and Central Africa
Fluency in English and French
Time schedule and budget
The deadline for submission of a technical (approach, methodology, work plan) and financial proposal is July 2nd. The evaluation will commence end of August allowing for field work to be finalized in October. The final report will be submitted in November 2012. It is estimated however that the first and second phases will take place during one month, the field work during one month, and the final reporting during one month. The total estimated input of the evaluator(s) is 50 to 60 person-days. Max. consultant’s fee: Euro 800/day.
Selection criteria and procedure:
Selection of the service provider is based on the following criteria:
Proposed approach and methodology 30%
Competencies and clarification roles 50%
Financial proposal 20%
Request for Proposals
Through this Request for Proposals SNV invites qualified Service Providers to submit proposals that:
Express understanding of the evaluation purpose
Propose an approach and broad outline of methods to be employed
Provide daily consultancy fees and overall budget
Describe evaluators’ competencies and include proof thereof (include 2 evaluation/research reports related to the evaluation subject, evaluator’s CV, company profile)
Define roles and responsibilities of the evaluators
State evaluators’ availability in the period August-November 2012.
Include a declaration of independency from persons and organizations that have been involved in designing, executing or advising any aspect of the SNV Niger pastoralism program.
Proposals should be submitted to email@example.com, Dr Marlene Roefs, Managing for Results Unit, SNV Head Office. Deadline for submission is July 2nd, 2012.
Republique of Niger 2006, Rural Development Strategy, Action Plan, page 123.
SNV Practice Brief “Improved Livelihoods for Pastoralists”, December 2011
Physical availability of food addresses the “supply side” of food security and is determined by the level of food production, stock levels and net trade (FAO: www.fao.org/docrep/013/al936e/al936e00.pdf).
Economic and physical access to food at household level (FAO: www.fao.org/docrep/013/al936e/al936e00.pdf).
The meso-level refers to the actors, processes and institutions that shape the layer between the micro (community) and macro (national) level. It is the social space where district and provincial governments operate, where economic chains between local producers and their national and international markets are organised, and where civil society organisations coordinate service delivery and social change processes. It is the place in society where national policies, institutions and programmes interact with local realities and take effect. The meso-level is the focus of SNV’s work.
All reports to be written in proper UK English, with the final report, including executive summary, not exceeding 30 pages.
Depending on need and feasibility this may include collection and analysis of primary, quantitative data by an African University.
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